Social Class

Social class

A group of people in a society that poses the same economic status, often determined by ocupation, education, income, manners, etc.


Status- The posotion of an induvidual in relation to another or others, especially in regard to social or proffesional standing


Class- Is a social construct. A system of ordering society whereby people are divided into set bases on perceived social or economic status.


The New Classes




What am I supposed to know for Section B

Skyfall + Shifty          Mainstream + British Indipendent

  • Production
  • Distribution
  • Marketing
  • Exhibition



SkyFall Product placement:

Tom Ford taiolered suits

Sony hardware

Heineken paid 23million for the actor to take a sip if heineken

Budget £93.7 million

Visit Britain

Olympic games

Exhibirion and digital technology

Distribution into cinemas: it was the first film to be screened in IMAX venues. Not filmed in IMAX.

IMAX was successful and took $3.5million 79 loactions over 15 terotories averging $45,00 million.


Hollywood Vs British Indie

Hollywood is domminent

]British Indie do noit have moeny, audience or synergy

Digitalistation of cameras and projectors, british can operate in a more cost effective way.

Microwave scheme-


Cinemas make money from (popcorn, drinks etc)



Representation of age

Representation of teenage Men- Rebeleous, Rude, Lazy

Teenage Men-

  • Lazy (negative)
  • rebeliouis (negative)
  • rude (megative)

Teenage Women-

  • hormonal,  ( negative)
  • dumb, (Negative)
  • self centered (Problematic)

Elderly Men-

  • Golf, (positive)
  • Racist, (problamatic)
  • Burden (Negative)

Elderly Women –

  • lonely, (Negative)
  • good at baking, (positive)
  • sweet (posotive)


Children- innocent – Dewy, Maclom in the middle

Teenagers- lazy

20s-30s Having Fun

Middle Aged- Not aware of pop culture

Elderly- Powerless.

Key Terms

Reinforce- Same as the domminant representation

Challenge- Representations that are different from the domminant

Ideology- set of beleifs

Dick Hebdidge




Micheal Brake– categorises teens into




Graeme Burton- Srgues that the teen subculture is in oposition to the dommiunant culture ‘Problematisation’ to descrive the problem of youths


Diffrent age groups are represented in differeent ways.

A middle age charachter is represented as wanting to be young and back in the  20s-30s sterotype. This is shwon by the Mis En Scene from the actor looking like a middleage man however the costume is soemthing a sterotypical teenager would wear. This makes the audience connote that the charachter is trying to fit in the pop culture of teenagers to fit in the school environment and feel younger by relating with the teenagers

Film industry lesson 2

Hollywood Film Studios:

  • Sony
  • Time Warner
  • The Walt Disney Company
  • Comcast
  • News Corporation
  • Viacom
  • Lions Gate Entertainment
  • The Weinstein Company
  • Dreamworks

Why are U.S so domminant

  • Larger domestic audience
  • more ameican directors
  • larger industry
  • more money
  • larger comppamies buy out smaller compamnies

The Majors

in the global markets, the major film studios are regarded as the six diversified media conglomerates

Film production and distibution subsidaries collectivley comman aproximatly 85% of U.S and Canadian box office revenue


Image result for big six srudious

Investinmg smaller companies is a way of ensuring youre moving woitht times and making money.


A conglomerate has a lot of money to put a film production. They can also market their film through all their subsidary companies

The practice is known as SYNERGY

Hollywood majors gross amrican box offixe receipts, 2013

  1. warner Bros
  2. Disney
  3. Universal
  4. Sony/ clounbia
  5. lionsgate
  6. twenttieth Century Fox
  7. Paramount

The Production Cycle

Choose genre, directors,stars

£1000 film reals produced and sent to as many cinemas as possible

get film into multimeida and tv delas

advertising the film as widely as possible


123Tv showsw including different sexualities

  • Modern family
  • Orange is the new black
  • The office- Oscar Martinez
  • Pretty little liars
  • Glee
  • 91210
  • Corination street
  • Sugar rush

Gender and sexuality are not the same thing, Focus on all aspects

Metero sexual- Heterosexual but can be considored gay


Defeniton of gender– state of being male or female ( typically used with reference to socail and cultural differences rather than biological ones)

Sexuality– sexual feelings and behaviour of a person , ideas of social attitude and organisation is impiled.

Heteronormativity– The domminant sexuality in the media is straight

Steroetypical sexuality

  • Gay men- camp, feminine, funny, outrages or very attractive
  • Lesbian Women- Butch, manly, blunt, man haters

Changing equality laws and a wider acceptance of different sexualitites withing much of a society . TV has remained quite conservative to not offend viewers. Heterosexual charachters are represented as the norm

Omly recently homosexuality has become a domminant representation

However, Gay and lesbiam charachters are often marginalised and are seem as supporting charachters

It is sometomes difficult for characters to grow and develop


Media relys on sterotypes

representation of sexuality has developed


Gender Theories

The Gaze

  • Staring
  • looking at
  • Voyeur

Laura Mulvey- Maze Gaze 1975

Objectifying women sexuality for the pleasure  for a hetero-male audience

Jeremy Tunstalls 4 character roles for women

  • Domestic
  • consumer
  • sexual
  • marital

Cannell 4 character for masculinity

  • Hegemonic – most power
  • complicit a bit of traditional also sensitive
  • Marginalised – Minority groups, implements media is racist
  • Subordinate – transgender, homosexual suggest gay men can’t be dominant

Earp and Katz

studied male relationships in media :

the media portrays Males as they are violent, dominant and control

The walking dead ep 103

The women are represented as a domestic woman by women doing washing

The men are seen as dominant and a hegemonic men, There is a clash in dominance with Shane and Ed where 1 person tries to become the most hegemonic.

The blonde woman is seen as domestic woman with complicit character as she is sensetive for the other women however challenges the hegemonic man

Stolkhome syndrome as Ed can do what he wants to her and gaze and she cant do anytihing , she apologises after ed is beaten

Women need to keep husband happy

Carol is submissive

Tunstall- domestic washing in the quarry

Andrea challenges Ed

Earp and Katz

males use violence to solve problem

physical and verbal violence

camera angle above Women


Both are hegemonic strong and resort to violence

some compilicitness







Representation of Gender

Bechdel test

Have at least two female charachters

who talk to eachother

have a conversation other than a man

in Sweeden the films include the Bechdel test otherwise the film get rated like a 15 if failed

US box office gross in 2013 for films that failed- $2.66B

US box office gross in 2013 for films that passed- $4.22B

What is gender

Your sex, whether you are male or female, is biologically determined

Gender is not biological but refers to a socially constructed set of behaviour patterns.

Gender labels


tall, DIY




Miss represation  of women

51% of populations are women

17% of women are in politics

Women need to write their own story and inspire others

both male and female children have equal ambition to be the president of the US when they grow up but at the age of 15 girls then you see a massive gap emerging.

27.4 -50% are women in politics in developing and muslim countrys.

media are trying to find more shocking thing to do for morte exposure

Inspiring the future- redraw the balance Gender stereotypes are defined between 5 and 7 years of age

The video suggests that kids think women are less likely to work proffessionally on jobs such as nursing, firefighting and piloting in society

Traditionally men have held power in our society- this system where men have power and control society is called: Patriarchy

Gender on TV

There are several gender sterotypes widely seen on televsion



Male stereotypes

  • traditional masculine man
  • New man- equal to women
  • Gay man

Female sterotypes

  • Traditional
  • Sexy woman
  • Lesbian Woman

Men seem to talk behind the womans backs negaivley and think its ok however when woman say something negative about a man in front of them it is seen as wrong

The charachters are represented as the traditional man by the dialogue used “Maybe you and all the other pair of boobs in this planet” which shows the charachter Shane objectifys women which can make the audience connote that


Shane – traditional man

Rick – new man




Stereotypes- negative

media institutions use sterotypes beacause the audience will instantly understand them. they are rrepeated sooften we assume they afre normal.

Archtypes- this is the ultimate sterotype. for example dumb blonde

Countertype- a representation that challeneges traditional stereotypical assocoiations of groups, people or places.

Representation- the way in which people, events and ideas are presented to the audience

to break it down, the media takes something thst is alreadty there and re presents it to us in the way they choose

These representations are created by the producers of media texts


who what why were

Who is being represented

Who is the target audience

What are they doing,

why are they present, what purpose do they serve

where are they, what enviuronment are they in


Encoding: The messages and ideas that are packaged into a media text by the producers

Decoding: the ways in which any audience unpackages or rerads the meaning.


Richard dyer’s typography of representation

what is represented?

different positions in the police

west sussex

south east


how is the representative of social groups?

youuth, pollice, male female, race counter type police officer, the black and muslim people aernt the criminals.

race, younger people are lower in police force

who is ressponsible  for the representation?

directors and producers

what does the audience make of it ?

many audiences from many relatble charchters

the town is nice due to colour

CUFFS 2013

Media representations often use stereotypes as a cultural shorthand

dyer argues stereotypes are a way of reinforcing differencez between people

sterotypes legitamise inaqualitites

The Representation Project

Stewart Hall’s reception theory

3 different way you can interpret

-opsitional, reject dont like it

-negotaiting, on the fence

-prefered, domminant readrer fully accepts the preffered reading

different audiences respond to representations in different way for different reasons


the way we respond to something

gender, age, ethnicity


Skins response

demographic, age , gender, mixed race charachters

preffered: some young men and women may be able to relate to this representation as they may have had similar experiences

Negotiated: some men and women may find the stereotyping inaccurate but still enjoy the show for its dark humor


Some parents, OAP’s and religious groups will find this subject matter offensive as it challenges theor beleifs and values.




TV drama and Real Life

issues of every day life present in the narrative

Out numbered (BBC)- family problems and looking after children as they grow

The Fall- gender inequality in the work place

Broad Church- stress, struggles in a work place

Gotham- working harder than everyone else

Taboo- distcrimination, mental ilness, religion/culture

eastenders- grief

Casualty- disabilities, stress, conflict

Sherlock- family issues

Luther- relationships, adultry

Jane the virgin (US)- family issues, love triangle

Pretty little liars- Trust issues,


Verisimilutude- The’ Truth’ of the scene and its ‘reality’



relates to such as; objects in mis en scene

associate with a paticular genre

Iconography in the opening sequence

The Bill:

Costume shows genre, police unform

Props, guns, cuffs, police car- police, action

liughting, dark background with high contrast to props and costumes

No faces ti give a genarlistaion to police

True blood

costume: many costumes to show different charachter

setting: south america, florida due to reefs

props: red props in scene to signify blood/death

Downton abbey:

charcters: no charachter apart from at the start.

dog can symbolise the ‘top dog’ owner of the bulding